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        從會話分析理論解讀中文脫口秀節目中的語言順應——以《魯豫有約》為例_圖文

        華中師范大學 碩士學位論文 從會話分析理論解讀中文脫口秀節目中的語言順應——以《魯 豫有約》為例 姓名:李蘭 申請學位級別:碩士 專業:外語語言學及應用語言學 指導教師:舒白梅 20080501

        中文摘要
        自1992年第一擋中文脫口秀節目《東方直播室》開播以來,中文脫口秀節目 日益盛行,它對廣大觀眾的影響也是與日俱增。本文旨在從會話分析角度研究主持 人和嘉賓如何在交際中選擇不同的語言形式順應權力。 本文的理論框架由會話分析理論和語言順應理論兩大理論組成。會話分析理論
        是20世紀60年代末,Haryey Sacks,Em鋤uel

        sche甜。婦和GajlJe觚等人在研究日常

        會話結構的基礎上提出的。話輪轉換是會話分析理論研究的核心問題,這其中涉及 到話輪的定義,話輪的建構單位,話輪的分配等。在會話分析的理論框架下,本文 著重討論話輪控制策略與毗鄰應對這兩個問題。話輪控制策略又可以分為三種,即 讓出話輪策略、奪取話輪策略,保持話輪策略。關于毗鄰應對,是會話中出現的一 對相繼發生的話語交際的行為,并且第二話部是對第一話部的呼應或對應,其中以 問答序列為典型。 語言順應理論是Ⅵ嬲Chuefen于1999年在他的新書《語用學新解》中提出的。他 認為語言有三個特性,即變異性、商討性和順應性。其中,順應性指語言使用者能 從可供選擇的不同的語言項目中靈話選擇,以盡量滿足交際的需要。這三個特性之 間的關系是:順應性體現在變異性和商討性之中,變異性和商討性為語言順應提供 條件,沒有變異性和商討性就沒有順應性。 本文以2007年7月28日播出的一期《魯豫有約》的錄像為語料,并把錄像內 容轉寫為文字語料。錄像內容轉寫后的語料含11 160個漢字,本文對這份文字語料 主要采取定性分析。語料分析主要從話輪控制策略與毗鄰應對兩大方面進行,研究 主持人和嘉賓在會話中從一切可供選擇的可能中選擇了哪些特定的語言形式。具體 說來,在讓出話輪方面,主持人選擇指名這種方式的比例超過53%,而嘉賓則少于 12%;在奪取話輪方面,主持人19次選擇打斷來奪得話輪,且每次都成功奪得話輪, 而嘉賓在試圖打斷主持人的7次嘗試中,只成功了3次;在保持話輪方面,主持人 和嘉賓都使用了各種技巧來保持話輪,盡管嘉賓使用技巧來保持話輪的頻率更高, 但主持人仍然能通過打斷阻止嘉賓保持話輪。問答序列始終貫穿脫口秀節目的整個 過程。主持人作為提問者,嘉賓有責任對主持人所提的問題進行回答。 本文的研究結果表明:機構性權力是語言選擇的關鍵。主持人和嘉賓在會話中 從一切可供選擇的可能中選擇了某些特定的語言形式是對機構性權力的順應。一方 面,主持人選擇指名、打斷和提問,是對機構性權力賦予她的會話控制者角色的順 應:另一方面,嘉賓通過使用各種技巧保持話輪來充分回答主持人的提問,以及他

        放棄的4次打斷,都表明了他對機構性權力賦予他僅為會話參與者的從屬地位的順
        應。

        關鍵詞:脫口秀;機構性權力;會話分析理論;語言順應理論

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        1量囊驀j冀哮i重萋喜囊羲妻墾耋主至交鏊孽主



        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        華中師范大學學位論文原創性聲明和使用授權說明
        原創性聲明
        本人鄭重聲明:所呈交的學位論文,是本人在導師指導下,獨立進行研究工作 所取得的研究成果。除文中已經標明引用的內容外,本論文不包含任何其他個人或 集體已經發表或撰寫過的研究成果。對本文的研究做出貢獻的個人和集體,均已在 文中以明確方式標明。本聲明的法律結果由本人承擔。

        儲鮐夕蘭

        吼艫r肜/日
        學位論文版權使用授權書

        本學位論文作者完全了解學校有關保留、使用學位論文的規定,即:學校有權 保留并向國家有關部門或機構送交論文的復印件和電子版,允許論文被查閱和借 閱。本人授權華中師范大學可以將本學位論文的全部或部分內容編入有關數據庫進 行檢索,可以采用影印、縮印或掃描等復制手段保存和匯編本學位論文。同時授權 中國科學技術信息研究所將本學位論文收錄到《中國學位論文全文數據庫》,并通 過網絡向社會公眾提供信息服務。

        作者簽皂:夕分之
        日期:伊譬錯月;『日
        本人已經認真閱讀“CALLS高校學位論文全文數據庫發布章程’’,同意將本人的 學位論文提交“CALIS高校學位論文全文數據庫”中全文發布,并可按“章程"中的 規定享受相關權益。回重詮塞埕交廈澄卮;旦坐璽;旦=生;旦三生發查:

        儲簽名:力羔

        日期:沙咄年』月弓/日

        導師簽名:孺嫠; 孫弛魑;
        日期:







        1.Introduction

        The

        tall【sho%舔a g朗re
        and Zheng

        of

        7Ⅳpmg例嗚firSt

        H趾Qing
        嬲the

        Wrei,Z加乃櫛j:2咖f鼢Dw

        bmadc硪d by NBC in l 954 is co璐ide同

        app衄red

        iIl Americ亂According t0

        ori咖of恤talk show(2005:125).Tel耐Sion t址showS
        w衲上h樹三P拋朋啪are
        to the

        of鉚o ce劬m的ditioIlS:news鋤d
        三口拋砌Dw
        sho、Ⅳs.Comp卸ed p∞gram in

        en:tcItaj加塒1t.三叫K西lg三眈,Q朔廳臃琨鉚冊Dw,
        me
        rcl)resen_tatives 0f


        origMly鋤e刪oIIt
        compar嘶Vely
        ne、Ⅳ

        success觸觸耐c孤talk
        i11 1992,

        Cbin氖1飛屺觸Chine∞t芏11k show鉚把n細Z鼢舶印peared

        development of the ta收sb【0w dbroa也it is

        howevcr,this newt),pe ofTv

        pr0舯m is not popular u血l勛紀刀豇矗婦豇漢《實話實說》)
        suCCess

        appeared in CCTV iIl 1996.Due t0也e great

        僦io璐follow CCTv
        Co璐ide血g也e
        its

        and出氐啪t齜0ftalk
        rel撕vely study tlle

        of而地玎豇觸P豇魂10Cal
        are

        TV

        Shows

        nourismng on

        the

        screI瞰.

        sh嘣hi咖巧of

        me Ch-mcse talk

        Sh(M
        0r

        most of me

        existing reSearches ei也er

        talk show嬲a m嬲s media prodllct

        juSt

        fIoclls

        on

        l詛guistic featllres

        exclllsively and seldom tal【e power int0剮∞o切吐.Therefo∞,廿lis

        paper、玩H not oIdy study the

        liIl鰣stic

        choices maile by tlle show

        host觚d

        t11e guest

        uIlder me f.rame、硼lrk of C~but also take

        iIlsti枷。舶山power i刀【t0 considt船:tion.

        1.1 The purpose of the study

        The present study serves弱an

        e)【plo枷0n of t11e“嘲陋tion

        of linguistic choices t0

        i|娥itI工tional

        pow釘1in也e Chine辯ta墩sh01ws丘.0m也e pe閩嗣mvc of

        notion of power researChes
        on

        l娜not

        rec:eived

        enou曲刪on嬲“should
        me

        C八IIl

        CA,tlle

        haVe.Most p佗、,io璐

        con、rersa:tion oIlly

        foc吣on the com,a袋以on snⅫ’nⅡe,and也erefo∞,nley

        f缸l

        to

        pmbe de印iIlto也e蠡IctorS ca吣iIlg tllat ConVersa廿on蚰mcture.This papcr is going
        t:he local

        to鋤myze
        arc

        s鉚lcture of tlle ta收show

        in order to manif.est Wbat liIlguistic choices

        made by也e show host and

        guest舶m

        pc哪刪vc

        of

        CA觚d孤Sw盯me
        0f

        questio璐ofWhy those l岫馳stic

        choices

        a∞嫩de丘.0m the

        pe嘲>∞tive

        Vre您chu唧’s

        Lmguistic

        Adaptation

        1koⅨ

        1.2 The rational of the study

        Ge朐瞳lly’all
        the fonn of

        studies

        on

        C01wersa矗on

        are

        c耐ed out t0

        study eitller也e content

        or

        aDIl螂a虹on.If we Studv也e
        org砒li2ation鋤d how

        contcnt of Conversatio皿tllen our

        a1:te而on、析U
        han也if
        we

        f&us

        on

        topical

        topics

        a他m砸mg西;on

        investigate t11e

        f0眥of con、舊嘲don,we
        str鋤e西es
        and
        on so

        will

        C0nc翩黼onⅡle mleS
        pe嘲腳ive

        t11e otllcr

        goVe皿【ing
        prcsent tlle

        t啪一tal【ing如d tl瑚一con臼.ol
        study g∞St’s

        0n(Ja00b

        L.Mey’200l:137).1k

        is 90illg t0 condu烈reSearChes

        the f.0rInal嬲pectS of the show

        hoSt’s鋤d

        linguistic choices ill t11c Chine∞ta墩show五的m缸le
        are

        of CA,and

        msCuss why those linguistic choices

        m孤le.The selection of tlle present topic is

        pr血arily列五bmcd t0也e

        follov嘶g moti謝。潞:
        on

        First,t11e f0陀mnnerS of CA focIlS their rescaI℃hes

        daily con、,el?sa:tion a11d

        forⅣ{玳l me tIlm—tal【ing meclla血sm.SackS(1 974)et
        is a“local

        al emphaSize that

        tllm一蛐g

        pm

        system

        manag鋤ent sys劬”(He

        Zhao)【iong,2003:8 1 8).By“locally

        manag盱’tlley

        mean tllat me pattenlS鋤d鼬ructures of C0nversation reslllt丘om What people do弱曲Ley
        go along ratller

        man their being compelled

        t0

        follow

        a courSe

        of ac矗on that h弱been

        detemlined m adv鋤ce(Camer0塢2001:90).CA
        provides


        is good at Injcr0一level

        aIlalysis,鋤d


        detailed,systematic

        research

        on

        liIlguistic details.Since也e present gtudy is

        c弱e study,CA is強ide2Ll anal)rziIlg tool for studying

        l刪stic

        details.

        SeConmy,al也ough

        CA h嬲tlle advantage of micr0一level anmysis,it
        see

        h嬲its

        o、)l,n

        lilIli蜥ons,too.CA鋤【alysts
        someth砸g cre舢ed by

        context鈾Some也j.m曙creatcd in talk rad【ller也I趾talk雒
        iIlsist th越

        conteXt(Cu陋ng,2002:32).Many(A prac瓶oI磁s
        Concludes也at CA does
        not require

        也ings l詼e‘‘powd”and“con仃Dl”muSt be co璐仇Jcted locally by me
        interaction.C砒玎蝴的n also detailed l【nowledge of

        p枷cip卸:tS
        t0

        in勰
        gaill

        me刪ysts

        p礬cip礎’iden:tities,也eir daily roln訪鵲orⅡleir belie矗While

        i11stead恤ir ta墩itSelf is骶atIed鵲containjng
        舡a re砌t,CA鋤alysts
        ThcIy tend t0 and h01d t11at there

        eve啦g

        relevant for趾alysis(200l:88). sociaJ

        arc no

        pre一泌謝bed

        rel撕。娜0fp0脯:
        locally

        u∞the

        tem“嬲弘瑚玳積y”i11stead

        of power and也e弱ymme訂y is

        intI:ra以onally produced.HoweV%弱Fa沁lou曲(1 989)says,convefs撕帆does not v∞lnlm(qu(炮d in Cm血g,2002:33).A 6即cc砷icism ttlat“does not take i11to acco眥t pfa鯽atic or S0ciolinguistic嬲pectS of


        e)【ist、撕ⅡIhl

        social

        CA is

        (Jo鋤Cu缸塢,2002:32).,n1觸,Ⅱlis

        paper


        ado幽趾integral甜ap】嘶combinillg

        iIlte刪0n

        le、,eled at


        inSti枷onm

        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        m瓣aIlalysis

        of

        pow盯狃d mjcro二觚alySis

        of

        conVers撕on.This

        paper holds tllat the

        power p陀一e】【ists in inStitutional

        p吣慣c蛆be誠lnifestcd by

        hn毋listic

        齜tI瑚-alloC撕0n

        t),pes

        a北硼斌Ita刪
        either

        d砌ls.For inst孤Ce,in the C0ur|脅om discou璐e,
        t0


        s礎gs,趾d

        tbe innu‘Ince of

        i玎sti刪onal

        lar]ge

        e)(tI鋤,Which潮ves
        be

        countI湘vidence ag血st

        CIA,view thatⅡliIlgs

        c0璐t111CtIed locally byⅡ1e panicip鋤臨in an Thi】礎y,the e)【istil塢rc∞arches orjⅨIt f.ocus on
        its

        inte刪ion.
        st|udy

        likc“p0、Ⅳ盯’and“control’’must

        tbe tau(show嬲a mass media prodllct

        lill鰣stic

        fea主Ilres exclusively鋤d seldom explain why theSe

        liIl嘶s6c
        is

        做咖∞s

        arc

        diSplayed.In it is

        om盯t0丘gu嘴out也e deep∞璐e如r也o∞lillguistic f.e嘲lres
        ta:kc

        of t11e talk
        not

        shoW
        t0

        necessa巧t0

        instit嘶onal

        pclw髓int0

        co璐i圳on.Still,it
        of
        are

        en01]呸;h

        jllst

        becau∞we

        caIl

        not舡嗍qllestions
        under tlle
        resorts

        link tlle inStmItional

        power鋤d linguistic詫atllres
        l訪guisdc
        choices

        the詛u(Sb【o暇

        of What

        made by也e show

        host鋤dⅡle舒lest
        lillguistic f.orm
        or

        f.鋤ewo r!k of CA鋤d
        one

        whyⅡley ch00se吐1at particul盯

        st吼tegy t0 communicate、航tll

        aIloth‘Ir.hl o矗ler t0 solve tlle‘‘Why” A出q≯tation Theory,wllich

        problem,Ⅱlis paper

        t0、/rerSchuef吼’s LiIlguis6c
        uSe

        c紐

        e)(plaill why tlle host and讓屺母lest

        tllal particlllar

        li咖stic means

        aInong Various

        linguistic resoll】汜es available to讓.c】m.

        1.3 Data colIection and methodology of the study

        彳上)a鈀w打辦工材拖is 0ne 五r髓broadcaSt、硼s
        0n

        of t11e most successnJl tdIk show
        0n

        pmg砌s in CbiIl&Its
        it

        J鋤ua巧2002

        Phoeni)【TV

        Cb鋤田【el,鋤d

        h嬲e巧oyed鯛t
        WhoSe

        popul撕鑼evcr
        back罌.01mds

        siIlCc

        t11吼.The
        dl磚t0

        program

        i11vitcs曲啞ming

        pcrSonalities

        arc靴ial

        sple‘她lllar

        e)【】p耐em:es
        and

        or鋤砸血g蒯eVements.
        are

        Beca嶙e tlle show哥lests a陀丘10m all walks of l“’e,the topics illclumng higmy co曲∞verSial
        this

        also all-inclu.siVe,eVen audiencc of

        t叩ics such嬲ⅢV vc巧exp耐enccd
        and

        lesbi鋤loverS.The

        pro鏟鋤is not

        careI’mly sele∞ed but船:ther m1帕omly.11地host
        is and quallified iIl


        Chen Luyu is t11e whole

        soul of this

        pro黟am.She

        C0n仃011噸me

        pr0掣anl’觚d her銜enmiIless,wit
        guestS.Due t0 her excellent

        cb姍酉vc ViewerS

        k泡er underst趾diIlg of her
        Oprah’’by CNN

        perf0衄觚cc,she h私be髓called“C址阻’s

        joumalist J鋤es MacDonald.

        m紕are coll眥d瑚do砌y舶m么m紀w砌三砧訖(《魯豫有約》),w11iCh w弱


        broadc塒cd

        0n

        July

        28th,2007.ne印isode is(10、砌oaded舶m也e hlt鋤et髓d也en
        concenle也tlle p陀scnt酏udy
        is
        n0

        transcribed in:t0 text.As f缸觴tlle mcthodology is qualita主ive

        re㈣衄iS da協執趾d也e0妒枷Ven.111ere
        bom
        not initially be

        is



        pred呶棚血cd

        model in mind and仕屺鋤alySis should

        孫唧ti0嬲.As
        舡圓Ⅳ‘髑me

        co璐劬Iined

        by prior也coretical

        f-0r血e speci丘c pIⅨ矧iures of tlle anmysis,也e pres饑t

        st|Ildy觸

        quesdon of、)I,:hat linguisdc choices a塢made

        by也e host趾d guest

        resp硎vely'm鈕eXplains Why也0∞HngIliStic choices a豫made
        1.4 ouUine of the stlIdy

        inl陽捌on
        of CA
        are

        111is

        n圮sis
        t0 tlle

        a蛔ge吐財c0璐ists

        of

        p鄴∞,menlo也鋤d礎onal
        and
        on

        si)【chapters. ofthe

        Chap瞬One西ves



        brief

        pre剛砌y.
        power,CA nleo巧and也e tall【
        on

        Chap俯T.wo
        show.In也is

        c毗r,French
        nree百ves


        presents a佗view of t11e lite瞰ture

        on

        RaV衄(1959)’s
        the

        vie、ⅣS

        power is adoptcd;也e b弱ics
        re、,iewed. of CA aIld

        iIl們duced;tlle e】【isting Stumes
        descl面mon

        t出show

        are

        Chaptcr

        of

        nle丘鋤cwork

        V砸chl_lereIl’s

        L遍gIliStic Adaptation TheoⅨ
        Ch印ter
        Four is devoted t0


        dctailed da:ta aIlalysis of what linguistic ChoiCes a他

        guest、Ⅳi也in恤meor面cal五團ne、Ⅳ0rk of C八especially丘.0m two a研’ccts—屯lr】葉control Ine曲ds鋤d也e adiacalCy pa缸 Chpter Fivc gives酆werS t0也c questio璐of why di晌眥t unguistic ChoiCes眥
        made by me host鋤d made by me

        shI聊host鋤d

        me

        inStitutional power丘.0m tlle

        pt雄cdve

        gueSt觚d

        how those lillguistic choiCes adapt

        t0

        of VrerSchlle代n’s

        Linguis6c A也唾)乜越on
        pointS out the

        Theory.

        Chapter Si】【p∞sen_ts tlle mscuSsion of the

        reslllts鋤d

        linlitatio璐of

        也is stu【dy.



        2.Literature Review

        11傖喇0r taSk ofthe pre湖t c蛐r is t0讞,iew foml盯re∞arches tllat have be鉍
        con(1uCted
        on

        p(嗍CA趾dtlle

        tau【sb【0w.

        2.1 S:tIldies of power

        2.L1 The

        de丘n“如ns of pow盯
        tbings t0

        Power

        mea璐di岱嬲t
        f10m缸d

        di筇。咖t

        pI∞ple.n
        t0 tlle

        is曲s衄疵in c0四ition,
        complexi鑼of p(ywer'也e
        of pow盯

        m_u16.ac酏ed in

        dynamic in衄ture.Due

        analysis of power

        h觴Creat。d既屯ensive htcr曲眥.e,and

        tlle

        mVer∞defillitionS

        are西ven嬲follo、Ⅳs: M雙Weber(1947:152)defincs
        social relationship、航ll be in regardless of the b簽iS
        on a

        powef嬲‘‰probabil時tllat o∞actor謝tlliIl his o、釉.、訪U despite resistallCe, c鄴7 position
        t0 out
        0r a



        Wtlich tllis probabili夠restS”.In his defImition,power is aCtion ra:cher than some kind of abint)r kind of social

        pe觥ived弱孤illdivid_ual’s
        relatioIlSllip.

        Brown鋤d Gihn趾(1972:255)say,“One
        砒Io也er iIl the degree tllat he is able

        perSon may be said to have powcr oV盯


        relatio嘶bc曲陀en
        them
        can

        at

        l明st

        tvm弘刪,and
        same鋤隱of

        t0

        cont∞l tlle behavior of也e o曲吧r.Pow盯is
        is

        nonreciproc2Ll

        iIl也e∞斌t11at neitller of
        m觚y
        b硒es of power—

        have power in the

        bchavior.There

        are

        physical sh℃ngt也weal旭age,scX,and

        instituti伽山協d role
        Weber’s.n仃∞:ts

        i11 the

        cIIu眥h,t11e sta:te,觚d

        ttle鋤y or誦曲也e f砌ly’’.111is de觚don poiIIts out也e b嬲e ofpov暇and fbcllSes
        on

        soci2Ll raIll娼,which is not m踟晡。球沮in

        power雒a rela:tion

        h潮Ⅳe睫

        砌ividuals(but nIDt毋.oups).
        Blau de蜀-mes otllers despite supplied latter

        pow盯鵲‘‰abil時of pe稻。璐or
        or

        groups t0

        iⅡII)0∞meir、7l,in

        on

        resist匝ce也rough d酏鋤吲∞e
        in thc

        ei廿ler iIl t:be f0加幬of witllholding regIllady

        rew砌s

        fom

        ofpullishmen_t,inaSm_uch嬲thc fomler弱weU嬲tlle
        in
        0r

        co塒itute,in e虢鴨a mgative s趾ction,’(quoted

        Led)佻V,1998:11).His
        groups,雒d
        poiIltS out也e

        def.mition

        reg羽s power嬲a rela:tion

        betv佗en證diVidlljals



        mea璐t0剃珊pow骰.

        in|№0r
        John

        French&Bertr鋤Rav即(1959)de6ne pov嘲’嬲having吐屺p0咖石al
        con們l omefs(quoted in
        more pc稻。船if they
        wor!kings of

        Li)(ia,2004).A唧relalio璐hip
        can

        t0

        is Said to hold
        0r a

        be鈿,een

        two 0r

        control
        seen

        or

        inn小mCe each otller’s bl出avior

        t110u曲她.Tk

        p‘m慣are

        ofkn

        in

        tlle鼬t11at a由lls衄呦t is
        t0 t11e

        not

        咖.way process:o∞group is
        the

        ex非脫cd t0∞commoda:te or嬲siIIlilate
        say

        nomls of
        is

        otller(quoted

        in

        C鋤eron,200 1:l 69).711圮rcfore,we
        and

        p(刑骶la矗ollShip

        姆唧匝etrical,nonrecipr0Cal
        of pow髓is廿1at

        m蛐relatio磚hips
        f.鋤。鄴cl弱Si矗ca土ion
        、棚l

        it∞洲edges
        While
        not

        dym血c.onc advantage of RaVen雒d F崩1cll’s tlle0Dr tllat p0、Ⅳ貿c觚be b勰cd衄也e∞cd or dcs沁t0
        juSt on也e
        possession of

        e)(temal stat吣or resollrc銷.

        Besides,也e moSt in叩ort趾t
        of

        co耐blItion

        tlley made~t0 the鯽u出es of pow貿is nleir

        pow盱.ney(1959:58)cl舔si匆power幽如e孵s,I瑚1ely,

        刪砌powe‘coerCive po、撇,le西t洫ate power,ref如nt po、撇趾d eXpen power,whiCh
        bc(1i∞吣sed in也e

        follo、池g part.

        2.1.2 F打e bas鋪of power As mentioned above,FIrench and

        Raven(1 959)l謝ve made



        typolo百cal study
        people

        on

        power and specifically describe也ese 6Ve bases of p0、Ⅳer soCial in皿u曲ce.The five baSes of power

        tll】rou曲which

        eX積

        a陀:rew乏I畦coercive,expe心le西血ate,and
        on齜person’s h撕ng此abil毋鋤d
        t11ese rew盯dS.
        on

        ref.erent(quotcd

        in Lu

        1h酉i119,2003).
        sourcc

        Rew乏瞳pow%111is
        resourCes

        t0

        re刪othe鸛.111 ad跚on,the t鶘et of也is硼1wer咖st砌ue
        abil畸to
        i11dict pIllnislmlent
        or

        of p鯽,er depends

        CoerCiVe poweL This solm汜of power depends power h嬲the
        or,at

        fear.The pefson、耐th coerciVe

        aVersiVe c(msequences on也e o也er

        lca甌to make tllrea:ts血at

        thc o也er per∞n、析ll resIllt in

        perS∞ pllnishment 0r岫des證lblc

        ou泐meS.
        Legitimate poweL This power

        so眥e stems婦t11e inte:mal砌Values of tlle onl髓

        perso璐、】l,:Ilich西ve

        t11e legi痂na:te rig越t0 the agent t0 inn珊mce nlem.The 0the-rS f.eel

        也ey havc也e obliga廿on t0細∞ept也is powe£

        讞恤agent、析eldiIlgpow既
        Expen

        Referent po、Ⅳer.n

        comes舶m也e des沁0n也e part
        on

        ofthe omer

        perS0璐t0

        id訓矽

        p傭憾n

        is b弱ed

        tlIe

        e娥斌to

        which omers

        a姍bute howledge缸d



        experience

        on

        the power seeker.

        Generally institutional

        speaking,power,as

        stated by

        Li(2004),earl

        be divided into two kinds: includes

        power
        Lu

        and contextual

        power.Institutional power

        legitimate,

        coercive,reward and expert

        power,and contextual power consists

        of expert and referent

        power(quoted in

        Li,2003).

        2.1.3 The defmition of institutional power According to

        Michael Agar(1985:161),institution

        is“a socially

        legitimated

        expertise together with those persons authorized to implement it".Institutional kind of imply

        power

        is



        legitimate power

        given

        or

        got in institutions where assigned status is crucial to defining institutional

        or

        roles otxtell

        asymmetries.Legitimacy

        power.Therefore, power power

        institutional

        power

        is relatively fixed and static.Generally speaking,institutional

        is measured according to the

        position

        or

        role that



        person holds,but at the same time it is

        also dependent

        on

        certain circumstances.It is also worth noticing that institutional

        sometimes restricts some other

        people’S
        it.

        access

        to certain kinds of

        power

        resources.In

        many institutional discourses,one party has responsibility for the conduct of the others have less

        t洮while

        contr01 over

        2.2 Conversation analysis theory

        CA originated in the 1960s through collaboration between Harvery Sacks,Emanuel Schegloff

        and

        Gail

        Jefferson(Ruey-Jiuan Wu,2004:34).Turn-taking mechanism
        on

        is the

        focus of their research

        daily

        conversation.According to

        John J.Gumper乙they attempt

        to study the process of conversational management per se without making any prior assumptions about social and cultural background(1 988:158).On the other hand,some

        researchers(anwngh_t,1 980;Drew and Wooffitt,1 998 ete.)study

        Heritage,1 992;Coulthard,1 992;Hutehby and
        as

        turn-taking in institutional discourses,such

        meetings,

        classrooms,courtrooms,clinical interviews etc.However,there are very few
        studies
        on

        detailed

        turn-taking system in the talk show. goal of CA has been to reveal and describe

        The primary
        of ordinary

        the organizational

        features of the

        conversation and

        other talk-in-interaction which provide
        for building in


        participants

        conversation some information

        routine grounding for

        intersubjectivity



        @k 2004:34.35).In

        tI吼s of fIl】咀鋤entalf.ea主I鵬s ofC八Heritage(1984:241)poin:ts

        org:蛆ized;∞con也Co砌b砸ons tuo CA:firSt,砷刪onis of
        t0

        thD∞main龜IhJres0r嬲Sum陋onS

        structtl】斌ly

        interactiona陀contextllaUy oriented;姐d廿lir也嬲areslllt of也e∞“Dch啪cte五s6cS'no o柑er accid如talor i玎elev鋤t.These R勉nlres鋤舊tlle

        of d“l iIl i11temctio璐c鋤be di跚11issed嬲m觸dy,

        cC0nverSa=tion 鋤alySisisbu池 2.2.1 Thest.1dy of“tlIm" f.o衄螄∞onwhic|h isab

        mSi衄越刪gnik切-mllt曲伽lltlA
        fC缸;c也si o腳 八tllef01銣咖嬲of CA Sk∞S dcfi玎施onof‘‰m'’.Fu岫ore,瞅∞rChe墻b0也at honleand etc.d0 not giveaclear abroad b解e non鐋ched a11nive耐ly abroad have no.reached


        of。鈕腳,,

        Furthermore,researchers both

        at

        home

        and

        in this field paper is going to list some of the representative definitions from scholars

        go№t0

        霪囊鍪髓s霎囊蠶霎譬霪羹薹, by
        evaluate them
        one

        and ofthe叩∞m炯de血i耄型曙鏨群薹騷己i委鏊羹羹薹萋主;蓁葡導

        universally acknowledged de丘nition of‘‰lr:B”SO far.This acknowledged definition

        of‘‰?∞far.1陸s

        one.

        霪霪萋羹霎霧羹霾薹菊a,螋萋簍匿薹霾重鏨塞囂耋on零主壘簍掣謄叫靼|霎,萋&簍叁孺n
        of the speaking f low,is

        According to Sacks,the basic unit of the conversation,that is,a shiR in the direction

        the‘'turn”(quoted

        in

        Mey,2001:139).
        stretch of talk,by
        one

        Harris(1951:14)defines the‘gturn’as“a
        after which there is silence
        on

        person,before

        and

        the part of that person'’.However,the concepts of‘'pause'’

        and“silence'’a re

        not theoretically

        clear-cut.In addition,his defmifion c紐not

        account

        for common pheno mena in conversation such as overlapping

        and

        mouth fillers.

        Goodwin(1 977:4 1 42)defines the‘‰_rn’’as“a

        static unit、)l,itll fixed

        boundaries.”
        what

        This defmifion i s too general and abstract,because we

        can

        not figure out

        fixed

        boundaries

        are

        and

        the length ofa unit simply from his definition.
        argues that the‘‰lm?’refers to process


        Edmonson(1 98 1)
        during the

        chance

        for鋤interlocutor

        to talk

        conve rsation

        and

        the stretch of talk uttered by the interlocutor.

        Compared

        with the previous definitions given above,his definition is most reasonable

        and inclusive.E dmonson thinks also“a chance for Herbert
        all

        the‘'turn”Can

        not only refer to

        the stretch of talk’but

        interlocutor to talk’,which

        Can

        explain the overlapping phenomena.

        M.Isenb erg puts

        drawrcriteriafor recognizingtheending points of a‘‰m’’:(1)pauses five of

        intonation;(4)questionhtaerb-ni)2(; ecnetnes)3(; intonation;(5)

        still

        c.Rn

        not

        account for overlapping phenomena. views:(1)
        of talk but

        To sum up,various definitions of‘-urn’’boil down to three representative

        the‘鈾衄’’refers to
        also




        stretch of

        talk;(2)the‘‰【m”refers to
        not necessarily

        not only a stretch

        chance to

        talk;(3)the‘gturn9’is


        verbal,for body language and

        feedbacks also constitute

        turn(Li

        Huadong

        and

        Yu

        Dongming,2001)
        explain overlapping phenomena.

        The first view is not so inclusive,since it the third view is too general since body

        c趾not

        and will

        distract researchers’attention to should all be

        conversation

        itself, paper

        language and feedbacks

        considered.Therefore,this
        of‘’tllm’’.

        intends to adopt the second view,especially Edmonson’s definition 2.2.2 Turn-taking mechanism in different discourses 2.2.2.1 Turn-taking system in In

        da姆conversation
        one a

        conversation

        analysis,turn-taking is

        of the most important organizational highly skilled
        or

        features of

        conversation.In

        fact,conversation is

        activity

        in which two

        or

        more people take

        turns at speaking,each turn

        adding

        reacting

        to what has been said

        and done during previous

        turns(Chang Zonglin,2004:1 29). tum-taking in
        daily

        A more

        accurate

        description of

        conversation

        is

        given by

        Cameron(200 1:89)as follows: …conversation
        managed in


        requires

        speakers

        to take turns,and this requirement is
        turn that is

        particular way.At any poiIlt given moment,the


        in

        progress will typically‘belong’to

        single speaker('one

        speaker speaks

        at a

        time’).Participants in conversation will conversely there will
        not usually

        not usually all talk

        at once,and

        be

        stretches of time in which

        no one

        tatks at
        in

        a11.That is not to say that simultaneous speech and silence never

        Occur

        conversations:they

        do.But when they

        OCCUr

        they are often treated by
        other words,as

        participants as problems which need to

        be‘repaired’一in

        something other than the normal

        and

        desirable state of affairs.
        on

        Sacks
        daily

        et

        al(1 974)published their

        fruitful findings

        turn-taking mechanism in

        conversation in‘‘A Simplest Systematies for the
        findings in that article
        a call

        Organization of
        as

        Turn-taking for

        Conversation'’.The major
        (1)One
        party talks at

        be sum/narized

        follows:

        time;
        turn to

        (2)Transitions(from

        one

        another)with

        no

        gap and

        no

        overlap are

        comnlon.





        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        D硎趾dH耐tage(1992:22)pr0:p0∞也atinstitu_tionaltalkis咖【dcrstood t0 be

        d∞ir鈀carahc bythreedimensions.First’ins曬tutionalta:Ik is
        ,dnoceS.dctneiro—laog instit嘶伽Ial

        laiceps“sevlovni【llat and
        particip鋤_ts’talk.r111i蚤電 no”吣】iahsnoc趕lllcitIap lano嘶t磷i ta墩is勰∞c誼ted謝m“in:fa珊tial危強ev—耐kS’ 也at era con鈀xts.Acco柑ing pamculadyrcleVantt0 insdtIl60Ilal

        lanoitfollr ni,)4:200詫at叫髑:rrobm01啊ot talkshave _ut而 di酬.mc吐Ve 2(wo (1)panicip趾t

        or id伽ities selor d柚debircsni—eriss臼ⅫmⅡally嬲腳嘶calmstriblItionof comr饑ti伽lal;(2)there p以。圭a礎h丘m坨a

        insti霎萋蠢e“:攀|薹垂。鏊蓄拿霧薹割l曼霎;蠢羹黼亍l蘩薹笪出翼溶霎。晏羹鏨藿要霎奏i鬟砸羹窖l壟冀靖薤!妻蓁
        uS岫lly getdi:晚r髓t咖es of tul衛晦;(3)tlle陀is rel撕oIlsllip betwe吼p枷cip鋤_ts intc加夠of lac矧舯鶴組osla

        se咖mut be鋤積m也e p礬cip鋤:ts舳Ch恤tsp∞ke岱嘶mdi]髓r∞t instjtIIti伽Ial identi6es

        霧霎i薹l匿霪芑麓紫餮一霎蓁}羹霎羹塑l^y叁叁口蟊霍鋈剮薹莓羹舊K叮崖蛐柏蓁Ic貂l萎壅霧霹蓄爨爹蠡矍旦 sp湘rigbtS孤ld
        l鐾蓁』堅善腎鬻黍羹垂囊自蒿妻氫lj妻薹冀s鍪馨葵蠡鬣墅|薷裂鋈鬟刁l萎霎蘑{薹囊g驀委吲曼鬻羹耄馨蠶冀 res01Ⅱ℃esand identities t0 o撕g evi喝Ucsid)4(;Snp枷cip鋤:tsilbo t0 aCcompliSh印eCmc
        l礴g薹|喜霧囊li塞|雪搿瑗冀奎薹I蠶馨蓁鬟雩l蕊,|里囊塑i|蓁蓁|!塞鎣羹霧美叫;矍章羹g:
        liava a:ble

        re也ie聆a璐。撕a weak∞ed or
        disCoul∞is host

        ni刪dg呦s rela虹on to tlleir cuntmt sl】lm up,iIlS廿tu:ti蚰al

        霧i窆銎萎薔icipants by the show id訓6es.o枷itSlIi lan Tb
        Non-monitored

        goal—orien屯e也pI)v舊f.1ad鋤and

        speaker-selection

        and

        Monitored

        speaker-selection

        and

        rum-taking(unplanned interventions)
        No
        explic it metalinguistic patterns
        s tages

        turn-assignment
        for Explicit various

        metalinguistic


        patterns talk

        for

        various

        of

        interaction(negotiated

        tages
        turn

        of

        the

        show
        next

        turn-lak ing slots,next speaker selection

        (monitored

        management,

        and topic agenda)

        speaker selection,commercial announcements)

        break


        CIA

        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        蠡ctof也ediSpIre是撇e for pati翎bini_tia:自ed questions.

        Finally,aS f缸嬲mediadisCour∞is

        broadcast no璐c)矗a也emecn0C

        h弱 伽∞rg腳嬲aninIlovatiVe approacht0 klat
        the ni is o舭n ad9pted to iIryestigate TOSlsDn).CAgmedia yduts dis如撕ve

        ov.。r伯^跚I鑼yea璐《A玳lrew

        C0nversation(o鬻爺干i器型霞習霎墾;囊;叁已羹囊;霧蓁 琶薹引H!;蓄叁菱墓曩蠢!;髻霎。l溶垂蓁鋈鎏薹妻萸雪刪鯉曼也冀l菁冀l霪羹霎囊蠶蓁囊羹坦霾萎薹墼 黼譽纛囊a£冀|耋薹U_蠹墼E童蓁耋鬟事自羹塞霧曼萎囂薹蓑薹嗤霪黌萋簍髫奏薹鬟差廷霆霧
        des嘶bes
        t11e

        f0衄s

        0f Speech

        on

        TV鋤d fadio.

        f0姍al

        s缸ucturc of

        萋l羹鬟髦冀萎霧aker(as

        when he

        addresses



        question to

        an other party);or

        parties may

        serf-select in starting to

        talJ【;
        units'’arc employed;e.g.turns
        can

        (8)Various‘'turn-constructional
        long,or they

        be

        one

        word

        Can be

        s entential

        in

        length;

        (9)Repair mechanism s

        exist for

        d蒯ing謝t11

        tum-taking髓TOrs and violations;e.g.

        if two parties find themselves talking at the same time,one of them stop prematurely, thus repairing the trouble. ’nle simplest system Schegloff for allocating turns in conversation,proposed

        by

        Sacks,

        and Jeffe rson,is illustrated as follows(Cameron,200 1:9 1):

        1 Current speaker se lects next speaker
        or

        if this mechanism does not opcmte,then…

        2 Next speaker self-selects
        or

        if this mechanism does not operate,then…

        3 Current speaker may(but In summary,the
        rese arch

        does

        not have

        to)continue. 0974)On tum-taking system
        in

        conducted

        by

        Sacks ct al

        daily

        conversation

        ers a Cov

        wide range of issues:the tum-conslructional components, turn-allocations.However,their researches

        basic rules governing a他limited to daily

        turn-construction,and

        conversation

        only,so some other researchers

        expand

        the application

        刮陀a of CA by study tum -taking system

        in institutional discourses.

        2.2.2.2 Turn—takin g system in institutional discourse

        Most

        of the early wor ks of CA

        focus

        on

        daily conversation,while the studies until late 1 970s.Since

        on

        institutional

        disc ourse
        analysts

        have

        not

        emerged

        then,many

        conversational

        have had growing interest in talks in
        SO on.

        classrooms,courtl"ooms,

        meetings,clinical interviews and


        and linguistic

        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESiS

        啊1e studies of the talk show mainly consist of two branches:mass media approach

        approach.For the mass media approach,media

        analysts mainly focus

        on

        the developmental history,social influence,rules and types,and the general features of talk shows.At home,some

        researchers(Zhong xin,2000;Duan

        Jianzhuang

        and Yan W-ei,
        and Yan

        200 1)specifically investigate the personality and the personal quality of the show hosl.s while other

        researchers(Wang Qun,1 997;Zhong Xm,2000;Duan

        Jianzhuang

        Wbi,2001;Wang Qun and Can Kefan,2002)study the

        characteristics of the show hosts,

        including their roles as 110sts and monitors of the program.However,the linguists are interested in the study of the linguistic features of the talk show,Cornelia Ilie is the
        representative analyst in studying the talk show.

        Ilie(2001)studies

        two excerpts
        casual

        of Oprah

        Winfrey show and

        Geraldo Rivera

        show,

        and compares them with major finds are

        conversations and with

        institutional interaction.Her

        listed in the two tables as follows:

        Table 1 Discursive features of talk show Conversational features Private

        as

        semi-institutional

        discourse

        Institutional features

        setting(pre—filmed scenes in

        Public/institutional setting(Tv studio)

        show guest’S homes)
        Relatively homogeneous form of talk

        Non-homogeneous form of talk
        Purposeful

        Spontaneous

        talk(1ess topic-centered)

        talk(more topic-centered and

        goal-oriented)
        Lower topic control and predictability Communicative,international goals
        Higher topic control

        and predictability
        international

        Communicative, institutional goals

        and

        No

        particular

        talk-related

        restrictions
        subtopic

        Particular limitation,

        (flexible tum-taking,topic and

        talk-related restrictions(time- and speaker-selection
        design)

        shi缸)
        No—institutional/real life roles(parent,

        turn-taking

        Institutional roles(panelist,expert,ete.)

        child,etc.)

        and
        etc.)

        non-institutional roles(parent,child,

        14


        eliciting

        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        ConVeTsationally

        ‰ed

        questions

        Institutio∞Ⅱy位吼ed

        queStio璐

        IpI證n撕ly in_tcdocutor-0riented) 加gUmentatively
        questio璐

        0rimarily audience—oriented)
        uSed

        璐ed∞n.鋤卿盱 EValua:tively
        questions

        non.鋤swer

        eliciting

        Inte訂ocutor田ri眥d repIetitions Audiencc..0riented托荽成ido璐 (鰣£Dep鰣tjo璐,allo呻舐tions) (敷Idressee-slli脅g rcl圮tiltions,message
        reta瑪eting relIetitio璐)
        By

        mal咄s饑’h



        comF嘎曲ensive

        list of tlle

        conversation-al詫a:tures孤d t11e


        instj俐onal鳧at叫呤s of也e taI k show;she co珈屺s to the c∞clusion伍al the切lk show is

        s砌-i碰m砌omIl

        di∞枷】r∞,

        existing

        bI鱈ween也e

        c叩V豇.s2嶇onal

        and

        inst面Lltional

        dialog眥.Fllrdle玎撇鵬,C咖elia Ine(2001:212)clearly poin.tS

        out也at ale talk show is

        “insti臼Itjonal也finc吐h0妣on昀lled,participant-shapled鋤d觚dienCc吒Vadlla:ted”.
        2.4 Summary

        This幽lapter pres銣瞳s



        review of缸le

        litec曲l∞on power,CA tIleo巧∞d

        the ta畋

        show:Fir觀for仕屺studi鷦of clailIls,‘‘1印wer

        p‘m%嬲the鼬ous

        pomstmdu陽1iSt Michel Fouca眥
        eV豇ywhe尬”(quoted
        in

        is evl≯),where…because

        it com【cs丘.0m

        Im

        Wmying’2006).1k
        b勰ics of CA
        are

        d勰sification of po、Ⅳer by French and F匕w吼(1

        959)h嬲b咖
        daily

        elabomted 0n.A review of也e

        def試tion

        of

        mscllsscd.The

        de觸io璐0f tum,tIl加砌ki刀g syst鋤bo血iIl

        insti枷伽Ial pow盯is alSo carTied out.SeC0n也

        咖懈剛

        3.A Description of Theoretical Framework

        3.1 Theoretical framework of conversation analysis

        3.1.1 Turn-construction component In English,a turn
        can a

        be made up of sentences,clauses,phrases

        or

        words.

        (1)turn constituted by


        word,for example:

        Desk:Ⅵmat is your last name Caller:

        廣 L

        Loraine? Dinnis.

        Desk:W瑚
        Caller:Dinnis..

        (quoted in (2)turn constituted by
        A:Oh I have
        a phrase,for

        Sacks et al,1

        974)

        example:
        in the evening.

        the…I have

        one class

        B:On Mondays?

        A:Y—.1lh:::Wednesday.=
        B:=En it’S like


        Mickey Mouse course. (quoted in Sacks et
        al,1 974)

        (3)turn constituted by



        clause,for

        example:
        —Havenche. L Y.eh.

        A:Uh you been down here before
        B:

        A:WheTe
        B:Yreah.

        the side walk is?

        A:Whritends.
        B:Goes A:
        B:yeah.

        廣all a'way up there?
        L_They c'm

        up

        with tub the:re.

        (quoted in Sacks et al,1 974)
        (4)turn constituted by


        sentence,for

        example:

        A:I know who’d guy is.

        17

        B:廣He’sbad. A:L You know也e guy?

        (qllot甜inS∞kSet

        al,1974)

        Imtn st仡tegi鶴 oc—mlIlI’2.1.3
        sf.0r蛐,yllaci弱B dividedin幻t11ree鑼pes:A speakermay (i)yield me e西 tum噸出ingcan be
        me

        dloh)ii(tu】[n.醐efly' wesay tum叱出ing model t啪;and趾砷甜ocu衙may(iii)ta】bthe ro;nrut

        edIul沁ylniam tum-)rielding,tum-hol蛐強d tum.cla:.毗血辱 3.1.2.1.I、Im-yieldingmethods of tl蛐一yielding mainly tem倫11 sdoh 0t缸crng mainly refer to nomination,self-selection,and nomin撕on,se搏Sel∞的瑪and speaker nominates the comple缸selfSeF墨蔞蠹;囊巍鍪羹羹壁酎衛羹主薹蟊委羹避蓁南鎣羹妻羹襄薹薹黧黿帝矍|蓁囊童匡蓁耄

        complete self-selection. First,nomination means that the
        next speaker

        current

        and sets discussion.For example, 冀簍薹囊薹|萄蠢霪薹鬟璧囂|蚤耋慧毳嚏鐾曩蠶l奠簍萋萄鐾曩羹鬻墾|霧
        the to pic for

        A:What do you think of Mary, 霾!樊塑羹羹費蓁iturn-yieldi
        B:She is


        John?

        good dancer,but…

        (quoted in
        Second,self-selection.The requesting
        or

        Sacks et al,1

        974)

        current

        speaker sets the

        topic for discussion by

        asking questions,but the listeners self-select to be the next

        speaker.For

        instance,“誰能說兩句?”
        Third,complete self-selection.The
        speaker
        nor

        current

        speaker

        neither nominates the

        next

        asks questions

        nor

        lets the listeners self-select to be the next speaker,the
        on

        listener will self-select to be the next speaker completely

        their own will.For

        example,

        A:…that’S what 1 think ofit-

        B:Well,I'd

        like to say



        few words about it…

        3…1
        ‘‘an


        (quoted in
        2 2 Turn—claiming methods

        Sacks et al,1 974)

        The methods of turn-claiming include ovedap,insertion First,let
        US

        and

        interruption.
        is

        consider interruption.According

        to

        West(1 984:55),an interruption the internal


        initiation of simultaneous speech which intrudes deeply into

        structure of


        current speaker’S

        utterance;operationally

        it is found more than

        syllable away from

        possibly complete unit-type’S boundaries”.Here“intrude’’suggests that

        interruptions

        are


        intends to get last

        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS



        turn.

        In contrast,overlaps come to happen at the speaker will

        po硫where


        the new speaker thinks the

        finish,but

        either the timing

        is slightly‘'off"or the new

        speaker

        mistakenly thinks the last speaker is close to completion of The board distinction between interruptions and

        turn(Cameron

        200 1:92).

        overlaps made
        to

        by Zimmerman and

        West(1975)and Cameron(2001)is listed
        (1975:105-129),an
        potential turn transition by


        as

        follows.According


        Zimmerman&West
        speak before


        interruption OCCUrs when

        second speaker
        to

        begi璐to

        place occurs,while overlap refers

        simultaneous speech,caused
        transition

        speaker who begins to

        speak

        at or very close

        to



        possible

        place in the

        current

        be慨overlaps
        project the
        not

        speaker’S

        utterance.Cameron(200 1"92)tells
        and

        US

        the mole detailed distinctions

        interruptions:(1)overlaps

        result from the new

        speaker’s

        failure to
        ale

        end of the last

        speaker’S

        turn

        with complete accuracy,while interruptions


        just



        violation ofthe tum-taking system but

        hostile act designed to deny the current
        are

        speaker’S
        to a

        legitimate rigllt

        to hold the

        floor;(2)overlaps

        typically short and start close
        start at a

        potential

        turn transition relevant

        place,while interruptions may

        point

        that

        Can not possibly

        be



        turn transition relevant

        place.

        Insertion refers to

        speech produced

        by



        speaker who

        begins to

        speak

        at the possible

        ending of the current eXpressed


        speaker's utterance.Insertion happens
        to

        when the

        current

        speaker has

        complete meaning.If the speaker begins called

        speak in the middle

        of the current

        speaker’S utterance,this phenomenon is 3.1.2.3 Turn-holding methods Rogers and

        interruption rather than insertion.

        Johns(1 975)define


        turn-holding as the total time each speaker is in Liu

        vocalizing as measured by

        stopwatch(quoted


        JiliIl,2007).This

        definition is too

        general,because
        intention for



        speaker can hold


        turn for

        completely different purposes,such as the

        competing

        turn or

        just

        stalling the time.Zhang

        Tingguo(2003)thinks that continue

        holding the turn means that the

        speaker

        should

        make

        use

        of some strategies to
        are

        his/her talk.In order to hold



        turn,various
        of

        conversation techniques

        needed.Liu Jilin

        (2007)makes



        good

        summary

        turn-holding

        methods:(1)monologue;(2)
        more

        space-making;(3)discourse
        detailed explanation of these

        markers;(4)pre-sequence;(5)interruption.The
        in

        tum-holding methods will be given

        dam analysis.

        19

        3.1.3 The The

        adjacency pair
        is thought
        as

        adjacency pair adjacency complete

        the fundamental unit of conversation organization,
        call

        because

        the

        pair structure of discourse

        tell

        US

        how participants initiate,
        pair refers to


        sustain and

        sequences of dialogue.The

        adjacency

        pair of

        utterances in which the second is functionally dependent on the

        first(Cameron,2001:96).

        Chang
        turns

        Zongiin(2004:1 3 1)maintains

        that

        the basic idea of the adjacency pair is that


        minimally come in pairs and the first of


        pair creates certain expectations that

        constrain the possibilities for pair is that given
        on

        second.The most outstanding feature of the

        adjacency

        part of the first pair,the other is normally the

        predictable(Mey,2001:
        the

        141).However,not all
        parts may be

        adjacency pairs

        are

        actually

        adjacent,since

        adjacency

        pair

        separated by

        embedded utterances,which

        Schegloff

        calls insertion
        states that the

        sequences(quoted

        in Jiang,2000:262).Huang Guowen(200 1:9)also

        砌acency
        adjacency

        pair is pair
        call

        just



        form of structuring conversation,within which another the

        be inserted.Schegloff

        argues

        insertion sequences

        are

        used‘‘because

        the speaker does

        not understand,or

        because he

        does not
        or

        want

        to

        commit himself until he
        in Zhang Tingguo,

        knows more,or because he is simply stalling

        delaying'’(quoted

        2003).
        Typical

        examples of the adjacency pair
        SO

        ale

        question-answer,request-offer(or

        request-denial),order-compliance and
        of the following data analysis.

        on,among which

        question-answer

        is the focus

        3.2 Verschueren’S Linguistic Adaptation Theory

        In 1 999,the Theory of Linguistic Adaptation was put forward by Verschueren in his work Understanding Pragmatics.In this book,Jef.Verschueren has proposed of language,i.e.variability,negotiability is the three

        properties

        and

        adaptability.According to

        Verschueren(1 999),variability
        possibilities from which

        property of language which choices can be made.Then,in terms
        refers to

        defmes the range of
        of negotiability,as

        Verschueren(1 999)says,it
        choices&re
        not made

        the
        or

        characteristic of natural language that linguistic

        mechanically
        on

        according to

        strict rules

        or

        fixed form-function

        relationships,but rather

        the basis of highly flexible principles and

        strategies(quoted in

        Li

        Xia,2004).According

        to

        Verschueren(1 999),adaptability

        is"the property of language


        which enables human beings to make negotiable linguistic of possibilities in such


        choices from

        variable range

        way

        aS

        to approach points of satisfaction for communicative relationship between these three properties and negotiability provide premise
        can

        needs'’(quoted in
        can

        Xie

        Shaowan,2003).The
        in this

        be

        summarized

        way:variability

        for

        adaptability;without variability and negotiability,adaptability
        existence.

        not

        come

        into

        Among the three properties,adaptability is the focus of this paper.First of all,
        adaptation
        occurs

        not

        only at the Second,

        level of linguistic forms but also at the level of since linguistic

        communicative

        strategies.

        choices a他made

        in



        certain

        circumstance,‘'communicative needs'’are
        to varying

        quite specific,with the“satisfaction"met only degrees of

        degrees.Third,with

        varying

        consciousness

        and

        for

        language-internal and
        to adapt

        language-external power

        reasons,language

        users

        make linguistic

        choices

        to institutional

        and contextual

        by both the Finally,on
        on

        language

        use鶴’intentions in

        power.Fourth,the communication and
        to

        adaptation is motivated

        other external factors.

        one

        hand,linguistic

        choices

        are

        made

        adapt

        to pre-existent

        circumstance;
        are

        the other hand,circumstances also get

        changed

        by,or adapted to,the choices that

        made.

        21

        4.Data Analysis

        Variability is



        property of language,which means language
        can

        p∞vid髂a謝de

        range

        of possibilities from which choices

        be made.However,among the many linguistic
        one

        pessaries,the communicator
        communicate with
        one

        chooses only

        particular linguistic form

        or

        stra:tegy to

        another.The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the particular

        linguistic choices made by the show host and the The dam examined here is host Lu Yu and the

        show

        guest in the

        da饑

        an

        episode of A Date with Lu Yu conducted between the

        guest Zhou Jielun(a famous singer)with the participation of audience.
        pair.The analysis of the

        The data analysis is mainly conducted in two aspects,namely,the turn-control strategies

        and the adjacency

        turn-control strategies and

        is subdivided into the

        analysis of turn-yielding methods,turn-claiming methods analysis ofthe

        turn-holding

        methods.The

        adjacency pair

        mainly focuses

        on

        question-answer sequence.

        4.1 Turn-control strategies

        4.1.1 Turn-yielding methods Turn-yielding self-selection. 4.1.1.1 Nomination

        methods

        refer

        to

        nomination,serf-selection,and

        complete

        Nomination means that the
        topic for discussion.

        current speaker

        nominates the

        next speaker

        and

        sets the

        In the data,both the show host and the

        guest

        use

        nomination to yield the turn,but

        the ways of realizing nomination

        can

        be classified into thine types.Although body

        languages can
        will not be

        also be used to nominate the next speaker in present study.

        face-to—face interaction,they

        discussed in the
        can

        (1)Nomination

        be realized by direct calling OVer the next speaker’S name
        the host and the guest

        or

        using pronouns like“你”and“您”.Both
        the turn.

        u∞nomination to

        yield

        Example

        l:The

        host USeS“你"to nominate the next

        speaker.

        主持人:對啊,你的故事其實我們都知道,但是我總覺得哈,一個男孩包括女 孩都是這樣,有時候覺得自己,哎,我長得還可以嘛,有一天也許我 可以拍戲,你從來沒覺得過么? 周杰倫:沒有啊。
        Example 2 The guest USeS“你”to nominate the
        next speaker.

        周杰倫:對啊對啊!(笑)你是在幫我相親么? 主持人:(笑)你現在,我很好奇,只是好奇。
        (2)Nomination
        pronouns in
        a can

        be realized by asking questions with the absence of names and

        two-party

        conversation,which鋤be

        found in both the host’S and the

        guest’S choice

        oftum-yielding.
        uses

        Example 3:The host
        the

        questions with the absence ofnames and pronouns to nominate

        next speaker.

        主持人:一邊彈琴一邊唱張學友的歌? 周杰倫:對,那個時候大概是唱《吻別》的時候。(轉向觀眾)你們那個時候, 有聽過啊?

        Example 4:The

        guest

        USeS

        questions with the

        absence

        of names

        and pronouns to

        nominate the

        next speaker.

        周杰倫:有關于什么的? 主持人:有關于就是你對感情的啊。友情啊,親情啊,一些看法,看你把哪個 排在比較,就是按順序來排。
        (3)Nomination
        the host.
        Call

        also be realized

        by

        imperative

        sentences,which

        is only used

        by

        Example 5

        主持人:哎,說實話! 周杰倫:(笑)帥嗎?哎,真的嗎?我小時候我真的不覺得。因為小時候就 是,我覺得沒有什么注意的,真的不是,只是朋友比較多而已,但是 帥哥真的,我們班很多,但是我不是。
        4.1.1.2 Self-selection Self-selection takes place

        when

        the

        current speaker sets

        the topic for the

        next speaks"

        without

        nominating who will be the
        potential next

        next

        speaker.Self-selection usually
        are

        happens in

        the

        situation that many self-selection

        speakers
        the

        available.Therefore,in the
        audience.Since

        data,

        only happens when

        host addresses the

        most of


        seldom used. Example 6

        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        dialogues in the data

        are

        carried out just between the host and the guest,self-selection is

        主持人:他第二次來做客,他第一次做客的時候你們誰、誰在這?2005年的
        時候?

        某觀眾:我。
        4.1.1.3 Complete self-selection

        Complete serf-selection happens when the ema孵nt spcakcT neither nominates the
        next

        speaker

        nor

        sets the topic for the next

        speaker,the listeners self-select

        to be

        the next
        are

        speaker.Complete self-selection is adopted both by the host and the guest,which
        shown in the following examples:

        Example 7:Complete self-selection is used by the host.

        主持人:但是我覺得生活就是,這就是你的生活的一部分,應該已經習慣了。 周杰倫:對啊對啊,已經習慣了,這些年這樣,我覺得自己能夠,能夠,怎么 講呢,拿捏啊,拿捏有些地方,需要自由,我就會不要讓狗仔隊拍到; 有些地方我想做什么,我就不管有沒有人拍到。比如過就好象我要交 朋友,我要交朋友,我就可能帶著南拳媽媽,我帶他們去打球,那常 常被拍到,有時候跟一些女生啊什么,有的沒有的,都是這個彈頭害 的(笑)。
        Example 8:Complete self-selection is used by the guest.

        周杰倫:那平時有時候打球啊,都是攪和在一起,所以這一次這個《不能說的 秘密》,他們幾個都有在里面演,我覺得演得挺不錯。 主持人:(點頭)黃秋生也演了?他不久前就在這我們就做過采訪。
        In

        the following section,this paper will

        study the

        distribution of the

        thrce

        tum-yielding methods
        of turns.

        by calculating the proportion of each method in the total number

        Table 3 The distribution of the three turn-yielding methods Category

        Nomination

        Self-selection

        Complete self-selection

        Total

        髓ehost
        The

        90



        68

        173

        guest

        18



        121

        153


        and for
        over USeS

        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        From the table,interruption

        Oocurs

        26

        times(including both SUCA:essfRI interruptions interruptions,the
        host’S interruption

        unsuccessful interruptions).Of

        the 26

        accounts

        73%,while the guest’S reaches only 27%.Therefore,we find that the show host

        much more interruptions than the guest.Furthermore,of the 26 interruptions,

        successful

        interruptions

        occur

        22 times.In terms of the

        SBCCeSS

        ratio for interruption,the

        host’S SUCCESS ratio is 100

        percent,while

        the guest’S is less than 43%.The following part

        is going to give specific examples of

        interruptions

        and classify the

        functions

        of the

        interruption.

        (2)Different When

        functions of interruption

        it comes to the discussion of the functions of interruption,the interruption

        here refers to

        successful interruptions and the

        only.The functions of intermption displayed by the
        discussed respectively.

        host’S interruption

        guest’S will be
        OR

        (A)The

        functions of interruption
        USeS

        the host’S side

        (a)The host
        Example 9

        interruption to force the

        guest

        to address the topic he tries

        to

        avoid.

        主持人:是一個愛情片是吧? 周杰倫:是一個,是一個愛情片。但是就是,不是一般的愛情片。 主持人:怎么?請問怎么叫一般的愛情片? 周杰倫:呃—就不是只有你愛我我愛你啊,就是多了一些,有一些動作在里面, 有一些(拖音)特效,爆破哦,對對對。就是其實花了很多的時間在 于后面的后制,不是一般的文藝愛情片。 主持人:你跟傳媒已經說過,這里面寫的不是你的初戀的故事。 周杰倫:不是不是不是= 主持人: =但我總覺得,一個導演的處女作,(強調)處子作,(面 對觀眾)肯定會有多少是有自己的那個影子的,(面對周杰倫)肯定 是有一點自己的故事在里邊的,對吧? 周杰倫:(笑,搖頭)沒有= 主持人: 觀眾: =不可能一點都沒有。 周杰倫:(停頓,故做思考)就是= =哈一 很配合我,太好了你們。 主持人:(面對觀眾)哎喲,你們真好,

        周杰倫:就是幾個橋段,就是彈琴的時候拉,彈琴的時候學生=


        周杰倫
        主持人 周杰倫 主持人

        碩士學位論丈
        MASTER’S THESIS

        主持人: 段是?就是你敲他的手?(屏幕播放此片斷) 敲他的手?(想想)其實沒那么幼稚。 這很幼稚么?我覺得這很高明的。
        真的么? 恩。 stronOy

        =彈琴哪個橋

        In Example 9,when the guest tries to

        deny any involvement with the story

        in the film and says‘"No,/IO,no”,the host successfully interrupts the guest accept his denial.In this way,the interruption creates

        and

        refuses to

        an

        opportunity for the host to push
        to the

        the

        guest

        to address

        the topic he tries to avoid.However,the guest sticks
        once

        answer of

        ‘鉗’,therefore,the host interrupts the guest
        or

        again to stop the guest’S further denial

        escape from the current topic.Due to the two interruptions,the guest finally concedes

        and admits that the film has something to do、衍t11 his personal experierlces,which is exactly what the host and audience

        want

        to

        hear.Therefore,we think that interruption is

        an effective means

        for the host to

        induce the

        guest

        to

        address the

        topic he tries to avoid.

        In terms of the function of the third interruption,it is different from that of the other which is the next function we
        arc

        two,

        going

        to

        discuss.
        direction ofthe topic.To be

        (b)The
        host
        uses

        host

        USeS

        interruption to
        to control

        control the

        interruption
        to

        the

        di刪on
        11

        specific,the

        of the topic in

        two ways:(1)the host USeS
        USeS

        interruption

        prevent the guest from straying

        from the point;(2)the host

        interruption to shift the current topic to the next

        sub-topic.These two

        ways will

        be

        demonstrated by Example 1 0 Example 10

        and

        Example

        respectively.

        主持人:拿獎的感覺很好? 周杰倫:哎,不錯,就是有時候可以,可以就是吐,吐口水,不是,吐苦水 你知道么嗎?因為在,在= 主持人: =你有什么苦水要吐? 友啊,爭一口氣啊,因為有時候大家都覺得,你沒有改變啊什么的, 所以我剛剛才會講到,我不需要改變,因為我是周杰倫,我覺得這 樣歌迷朋友聽起來也會很開心,知道說他們跟對人了哦(笑)!(笑 問觀眾)對么? 周杰倫:沒有沒有,在得獎的時候特別,因為我覺得這個,等于是替歌迷朋



        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        主持人:他們說你的,我看啊(找紙片),這邊有一個幫你總結的,“周杰倫 式的作風,走路不是看天就是看地決不看人,講話惜字如金但是一 針見血”。(問周杰倫)真的走路不看天就是看地么?決不看人? 周杰倫:如果、如果= 主持人: =那很容易摔倒。 周杰倫:對,對啊(笑)。
        AsⅡ地example sho、ⅣS,whtm tbe gllest tries
        訪珀Aedia:tely in鈀rrup吒s t11e gIlest and leaves
        t0

        e】【plain

        or

        deny,t11e


        host

        him no room

        for缸g哪cIlt.As result,mcr

        吐屺i11term砸on,the
        也e hoSt’s ide亂

        gueSt

        gives up

        ref.uting伯舊host’s opinion and s餞嫩1S t0

        c0晌皿t0

        (d)The

        host uses

        i玎舵仃up60n協obseⅣe婦lilnj侮觚d咀璩pm毋卸咀sChednle.

        Ex鋤講e 13
        主持人:你長得和你媽媽很像! 周杰倫:很像么? 主持人:真的我發現男孩,一般跟媽媽特別像。 周杰倫:跟我外婆也蠻,剛剛那個有一個第一幕《家》那個,MV里面的那個 就是我外婆。看眼睛就知道道,因為外婆眼睛也蠻小,有時候有沒有 睜開我都不知道。年輕的時候就= 主持人:=給你做一個心理測試很好玩的。(對 觀眾)你們也可以一塊做。
        As


        mle,ataⅡ【sllow h嬲itS
        13,the

        IIl溉unple
        talk sho、)17:

        part.n is、時出the

        help

        host娜讎耐in ofin鈀刪on
        intemJ砸on t0舔sert

        regul盯pattern鋤d劬e l幽the host should obser、,e. order t0 save缸e for moviIlg t0也e刪
        t11at me host
        can

        m觸憋e t11e whole prog陀ss

        of也e

        毋)The鈾ctio璐of鋤.emll)tion 0n血e guest’s side
        on也e guest’s side,也ere a∞only
        UⅡt獫aI℃listed
        as

        mree吼lccess觚inte唧tions in刪.An也e
        his 0pinion.

        fbno、Ⅳs:

        (a)The EX鋤叩le
        14

        guest u∞s

        主持人:學一個比較方便的樂器,比如說口琴什么的,隨時可以拿出來吹。鋼 琴太大了,不大方便搬來搬去的= 周杰倫: =吉他我覺得不錯,我覺得,男孩子其實

        ⑧碩士學位論丈 MASTER’STHESIS 可以學吉他不錯,蠻方便的,吉他這個樂器。 IIl EXample14,wh髓位host

        gnikni也si of蛆eX鋤ple ofa haIldy血乜唧【吼也e 舀lestiⅡlp撕髓廿y in_te:mlptst11e hoSt鋤d嬲∞nS his 15 (b)The g眥st ll:∞s in:tcrr哪嶇on Sbow s們ng蜥a1. Ex鋤ple 主持人:叫帥哥?還= 周杰倫: t0 .noinipo =沒有沒有,就=E)刪e 主持人:是你要求他們這么叫你的么?周杰倫:沒有沒有沒有,就是,就自然而然他們會這樣叫,就覺得……4.1.3 16
        gnidIoh_muT me也。凼 AsLiu Jilin(2007)says,turn-h01ding

        m10mbon.o啊2002)c鋤alS0

        bc called

        r0,)6991’wonS&o鋤N(噸njatnja哪曲It,)5791,sen0J&sregbQ噸dloh-roon
        wh血A&m∞吲e姍色W(gni印e【“oon

        F.Sigel,2003).IIl ordert0 holdthe cht嗚】ut speal【er necdsto some 0t砥ser ∞ruocsid,gndll{m—eCaps,eugololIom嬲hcus,s曲峨=arts dna,srek.鋤m .n4.10.1 oititeper ellgolonoM e血ed)1002(uY&Ⅵ m∞ologue嬲也e cun℃nt spcal【er proceedS、Ⅳim
        sih own t叩ic tuolltiw C0nside而19池me fomerspeal【er taIks秈ut(quoted iII LiuJil缸2007). Ex鋤ple17
        導演,曾經想過么? 當,員演當夠能己自,天一有過想經曾,前以戲部一第拍在你候時小:人持主

        是就要當一個演奏家,因為小時候就學鋼琴,所以小時候的目標,就是 想 候時小。片唱出要過想有沒都我,過想有沒來從,然當,啊有沒:倫杰周 guest
        has done to win t

        he蛐’S heart.However,the

        guest misunderstands the

        當個演奏家,因為像李云迪這樣嘛,郎郎啊這樣。那后來是因為這個,

        簽蓑鬟網蚓霧囊霸羹,垂巢鋈塑霧攀霧氫琶醐霞黔霧羹薹塞簍冀 萎i需商翼一霎囊霧霧墓薹蓁霧霧,禽制瑟垂簍鬟蓁,鎏羹翼蘩面0I霎 鬟霎震霪翼蓉j震羹囊羹蓁鋈饕藿霧蓁需赫需。霉曙堂蓁霽霧一蓁羹 器。

        1蓁震羞霎磊霪囊,冀萋霎薹霎薹 萋善薹菱羹莖嘲蔞吞暑5墓【】基nle

        型薹羹垂羹萋囊璧鯉萋塑稀羹黧i壑i塞囊}l簍簍羹瀚羹匿霾《蠢磊霎塑鯉萋耋霧萋霧曼囂

        e.g.主持人:你在現場很厲害么?
        Negative grammatical yes/no questions

        e.g.主持人:我覺得你應該不用緊張吧?
        Prosodic questions

        e.g.主持人:可是你不看人,很容易看不到人不打招呼啊。?
        Tag

        questions

        e.g.主持人:但我總覺得,一個導演的處女作,(強調)處子作,(面對觀眾) 肯定會有多少是有自己的那個影子的,(面對周杰倫)肯定是有 一點自己的故事在里邊的,對NE?
        At the two ends of the continuum of

        control

        ale

        the wh-question and tag question.

        The former is the open-ended wh-questions.The latter by


        consists

        of



        statement followed following

        tag question such as“isn’t that

        true?”or“correct?”or“didn’t
        makes
        use

        you?”The

        example will illustrate how

        the host

        of

        different

        types of question to her

        advantage.

        Example 21
        主持人:不過她歌唱不錯啦,你喜歡什么樣子的現在? 周杰倫: 我沒有。當然是,不是外國人啦,當然不是外國人。就是比較女人 味一點的,而且比較有女人味一點的。那就是,就是如果會喜歡聽音 樂,這蠻重要的。 觀眾: 乖乖的,聽媽媽的話。 的!因為我會常常分享音樂知道么,而且,其實有點霸道,我= 主持人: 你有點霸道? 周杰倫:我有點霸道。 主持人:為什么呢? 周杰倫:因為我會覺得,如果說要當女朋友啊,那個不能聽別人的音樂(笑)。 觀眾:
        (笑)

        周杰倫:對啊對啊,孝順蠻重要的,然后會不會做飯沒關系,喜歡音樂蠻重要 =是

        主持人:不能聽別人的音樂,每天只能聽你的歌? 周杰倫:這樣會比較好一點(笑)。 主持人:她可以聽別的女歌手的歌么? 周杰倫:可以可以,當然1
        33

        guest’s detailed reply.Since the host has dug out enough information for the subtopic, she
        USeS a

        back to the main negative grammatical yes/no questions to switch the topic of girlfriend the guest is looking for.

        topic--what kind

        IIl all,question-answer sequence penetrates the whole process of the talk show. The host takes the position
        as a

        questioner,while the

        guest

        is under the obligation to

        provide answers.The host’S questions not only restrict what

        the guest will

        say next,but avoid

        also determine what kind of answer is appropriate.Furthermore,ifthe
        answering the question address the guest’s
        or

        guest tries to

        refuse to respond,the

        host

        still can ask another question to

        avoidance and compel the guest to answer.

        35

        5.The Appllication of V_erschueren’s Linguistic Adaptation
        Theory



        Ck蒸攀|萋垂睦攀諗萋莓璧p露薹熏暨曼善嘉菱羹粗#甚l萋;薹;囊素霎誓鎏墓垂前蓁蓁
        不然我會常常問她,席不屑?還好吧 。你懂我意思么?她如果說“哇, 很喜歡很喜歡”,我覺得這樣比較合得來,對!

        蓁萋藿婺耋艇囊蠢霎羹疆霾薹喜蠶薹i喜萎霸霉奏霧萎蔫崔墓囊霉骨耋塞霧甏廷蠢妻球。耄l蠢嬖囊薹攀薹奏秦尉

        鋈糞萎澎匿眶耋寶l鼬冀州mf蓁奏鬟羹蠢季琶霎≯鴦耄薹霉霧薹羹羹在音樂,所以當然希望對方是也喜 歡音樂的!會欣賞你的歌曲的,

        主持人:那她是?最好不是公眾人物 ? 周杰倫:對啊對啊!(笑)你是在幫 我相親么? 主持人:(笑)你現在,我很好奇, 只是好奇。
        In the example,the host initially
        uses a

        wh-question

        to

        find out what kind

        of

        girlfriend the gue st is looking for.Then,the guest lists several qualities in reply to the host’s allswer,but he begins to stray from the poin:t,saying that he is


        little bit

        overbearing when he is in love.‘'Overbearing’’catches the host’s attention,SO she

        immediately emplo ys
        more information



        prosodic question to stress the

        guest’s“其實有點霸道”and
        what he means

        dig

        about

        this sub-topic.In terms of how to proceed with the sub-topic of

        “霸道”,the

        host begins with the host _uses

        a‘‰y”,SO the guest has

        to explain

        by“有

        點霸道”.Then

        a prosodic question to paraphrase the

        guest’s趾洲貿to push

        the guest to continue to say more about it,but she has not realized her goal because the guest’s answer just confllTns what he said before and has nothing new.At this poin:t’the host skillfully puts forward fu/'ther statemen ts guest’s reply that singer and
        USeS a

        grammatical yes/no question

        to

        force the guest to make

        and clarify his standpoint.Furthermore,when the host hears the quickly thinks of another famous male
        to test the guest’s

        “如果是張學友就可以啊”,she
        another

        grammatical yes/no question

        limit of his

        arbitrariness.no wever,the host’s probe into the bottom line of the guest’s arbitrariness fails,SO she again
        USeS a

        prosodic

        question謝tll

        the attempt to figure out the range of

        6.Conclusion

        By adopting CA

        as an

        analyzing tool,the presem study is carded out to study the

        linguistic choices made by the host and guest and their adaptation to institutional power in the Chinese talk show.

        6.1 Discussion of the results

        First,the talk show is



        semi-institutional discourse,and the distribution of power is

        asymmetrical between the participants.Generally speaking,the talk

        show

        involves the
        hand,the

        CO-operative effort

        of two parties,the
        to

        show

        host

        and the show

        guest.On

        one

        show host’S responsibility is

        moderate interactions

        between

        show participants,select
        Heritage

        speakers,and manage and

        the above釧∞ording to

        broadcast time restrictions(John
        main activities of the show

        Andrew L.Roth,1 995).On the other

        hand,the

        guest

        are

        listening to the information given by the show host and then participating in the talk by offering his opinion the
        as

        he is supposed、to do.Due to the pre—existent institutional power,

        asymmetrical

        power-relation

        between

        the

        show host

        and

        the guest is

        partly

        pre-determined.

        Second,in
        needs to

        such



        semi-institutional setting

        as

        the talk show,the application of CA msearch
        on

        be modified.CA originated

        from Sacks

        et al’S

        daily conversation,

        and

        its basic view is that turn-taking system is a“local management syStem'’.CA
        are no

        analysts hold that there things

        pre—inscribed social

        rel撕OIlS

        of power,and

        believe

        that
        all

        like‘'power'’and‘‘control’’must be constructed proved

        locally by the participants in

        interaction.However,the fact that the asymmetrical
        is partly pre-determined has been allocation

        power-relation between participants


        in the previous passage.As the talk show

        result,the

        turn

        and turn-type allocation are predetermined in paper adopts guest respectively
        hand,in terms

        to a large extent
        are

        Third,this

        CA to investigate what linguistic choices

        made

        by the

        host

        and the

        in the data analysis.In the data analysis,the research is
        turn-control

        mainly conducted in
        pair.On
        one

        two aspects,namely,the
        of the

        strategies

        and the

        adjacency

        turn-control strategies,the

        analysis of the turn-control

        strategies is

        subdivided

        into the analysis of turn-yielding methods,turn-claiming methods
        39

        齟dtllm—holdillg

        169 metllods.FirSt,笛五時t咖一yield噸memods,of me total tunls theh0St

        e1廿也is90tiInes,瑚mely iy勰h hoSt’s choiCe of nomi】1ation edle 53%of吐屺total. The show tseug chooSes complete∞U;.Selectionf.or 121ti:mes,訂tlich acc0咖ts f.orIleady83%his

        latot tllm—yielding.SeCon也、橢血regard t0 tllm-C1幽ning m劬odS,t11ehoSt choo∞s t0 a:骶mptS t0抽te肌pt也e罌leSt tlleguest l 9 tpurreg昵st 11i times齟d h嬲not缸led ewIn once.The t
        7血ncs,ycthe缸ls

        4缸es.111也is pa吒齔如塒mo嬲ofin_terru幽 are also eX趾血ed.Itis砌that砷刪on c鋤bc desll byⅡ1ehostt0 C0mpel the g∞st t0 address也e topic tries t0 avoid’control tlle he
        oftlle topic,impoSeher opinion theguest,andobserve tiⅡ圮limits and the noitcerid on

        regard 也 tur玎一holding methods,botll mehost aIld 也iwt0 rihT.ellldehcS鋤尹罷0rp
        t0 110ldmeet陷曲璐oiraV∞幽tSeug se西 turn, suCh勰monolog瞻,spaIce—m呔iIl島 discour∞m缸ke塔,強d .noit商印r Neve“heless,Ⅱle g嘴stchoosest11e∞tI姍n-h01dings臼鋤e西es
        t11e0thcr

        no.yImeuqe自erom t11eta:墩show haIl也wim∞g耐t0question-觚ls、7ver sc(11Je】nCe,it is如und mal

        deVelopswim the question-繃LswerseqllenIce goiIlgon.Thehost h嬲丘dlacCess t0 elillw,snoitseuq the罌leStis uIlderⅡle oblig撕onto pro、,ideaIlswers. the guest is under the obligation to provide answers. e1廿,yld砬F p礎icul盯linguistic choices made byⅡle show Finally,the particular li nguistic by the
        indicate indica:te their adaptation to institutional power.On po、Ⅳer.on

        their卻tation


        host and the guest host齟dⅡle guest

        i11sti伽onal
        over

        one

        hand,institutional power hand,inStitutional power entitles


        host the role of contro ller the talk show.As t11薹鋈毒鯉蓁增捌!羔霾蓁薹蒂羹藿&羹羹匡囊震霎l置箭鍪稀i季冀鎏㈨翠i薹州嘉…些麗霎囊羹簍霎誓羹 resul_t,nomination,interruption
        the

        and questions are chosen by the host to exercise power and maintain her dominant 霧蓁羹L‘囊L薹霎復羹霎鏊霧蠢蠢強R羹塞目羹蓁萋囊譬霎輦|孵囊萋囊望交鎏喬髦鶯霪奏鋈必主薹^Qi渾霉警

        position in the power-relation.On the other hand,institutional power entitles the host the 喇囊耋罄葡楚簍攀鐾薹二蓁|奏羹鍪l墅囊姜霪;霎曩雯蠶蓬薹璧mi§羹蓁冀囊冀霪蠶翼墓fli萎囂囊耋塞霎塑鬻再墓瞬囊嚆 right to direct ns,while 薹蓍鋈囊需些霎霎霎囊蓄彳孽三鏨摹U冀蓁簍囊囊j冀鬟謇妻霎刊羹誓霧張莛霪l薹the guest,a nd the guest will listen to and comply with the requests because
        he/she is given various

        power

        to dir ect

        the guest.Under this circumstance,the

        guest

        selects

        tum-holding strategies to

        provide substantial information for the host’S

        questions,

        subjective

        influence

        from
        to

        the

        analyst.Other

        analysts

        maybe

        classify

        the

        same

        tum-yielding method

        different categories.Therefore,the subjective influence of the

        analyst may also affect the results.Finally,for future studies,more types of talk shows
        can

        be examined.Besides,in order to get



        deeper insight into pOWer,more factors


        call

        be taken into consideration situation.

        when

        explaining the linguistic adaptation in

        specific

        41



        碩士學位論文
        MASTER’S THESIS

        Wl’融唧一】Iuan.sl鱖ce

        in T口lk:a

        co刑ers舐on AmlySis彭M鰳darin F{陽t P甜tictes

        [M】.Amsterd鋤:Jolln Be坷amills Publislling Comp鋤y’2004.
        常宗林.英漢語言文化學【M】.青島中國海洋大學出版社,2004. 段建莊,閻煒.電視談話節目主持人,走好叨.新聞愛好者,2001(9):32—33. 韓青,鄭蔚.電視娛樂節目新論【M】.北京:中國廣播電視出版社,2005. 郝樸寧.話語空間一廣播電視談話節目研究【M】.北京:中國科學社會出版社,
        2005.

        何兆熊.新編語用概論嗍.上海:上海外語教育出版社,1999.
        黃國文.語篇分析的理論與實踐一廣告語篇【M】.上海:上海外語教育出版社,
        2001.

        姜望琪.語用學一理論及應用口咽.北京:北京大學出版社,2000. 李華東,俞東明.從話輪轉換看權勢關系、性格刻畫和情節發展叨.解放軍外國語學
        院學報,200l,(2):28-30.

        李霞.語言選擇中的權力順應性p】.山西大學,2004. 劉虹.話輪、非話輪和半話輪的區分叨.外語教學與研究,1992,(3):17—24. 劉吉林.中國訪談節目中話輪把持策略的研究【D】.廣東外語外貿大學,2007. 盧莉.話輪:英語會話的言語轉換機制陰.深圳大學學報(人文社會科學版),
        2003(3):118一121.

        鹿婷婷.機構性權力—廣播談話節目中的話輪轉換p】.山西大學,2003. 《魯豫有約:解構周杰倫》[OL】.

        5塾鯫;厶熊毆叢迫:曼Q衄地蜮虹魚QQ塑蝤!幽g!蝤Q三:塾魚畦三

        呂萬英.法官話語的權力支配川.外語研究,2006,(2):9—13.

        苗棣,王怡林.脫口成“秀’一電視談話節目的理念與技巧[Ⅶ.北京:中國廣播電
        視出版社,2006. 申丹.兩個最年輕的當代文體學派別評價陰.外語與外語教學,l 998(2):32.38. 王群,曹可凡.談話節目主持藝術口咽.上海:上海社會科學出版社,2002. 謝少萬.也評“順應理論”川.西安外國語學院學報,2003(3):9.11. 張冠文.電視談話節目的文化分析【J】.理論學刊,2003(3):128.129. 張紅燕,易立新.對權力話語的思考[J].中南民族大學學報(人文社會科學版),
        2006,(2):162—164.

        張廷國.話輪及話輪轉換的技巧叨.外語教學,2003(4):23.25. 鐘新.美國電視脫口秀主持人特征分析田.中國青年政治學院學報,2000(4):77.82.
        45

        Appendix:Transcription Conventions
        There is interval between the end of prior turn and the start of

        no





        next piece of talk

        Material

        has been

        omitted

        Beginning of overlapping utterances


        Short untimed pause within an utterance Long untimcd pause

        從會話分析理論解讀中文脫口秀節目中的語言順應——以《 魯豫有約》為例
        作者: 學位授予單位: 李蘭 華中師范大學

        本文鏈接:http://d.g.wanfangdata.com.cn/Thesis_Y1289730.aspx



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